A mobile operating system, also referred to as mobile OS, is an operating system for devices such as a smartphone, tablet, PDA, or other mobile devices; however while some computers are strictly mobile, such as the typical laptop, their operating systems usually used on them, is not considered a mobile one as they where originally designed for bigger stationary desktop computers that historically didn’t have or need specific “mobile” features. This distinction is getting blurred in some newer operating systems that are hybrids made for both uses. Mobile operating systems combine features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use; usually including, and most of the following considered essential in modern mobile systems; a touchscreen, cellular, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GPS mobile navigation, camera, video camera, speech recognition, voice recorder, music player, near field communication and infrared blaster. Mobile devices with mobile communications capabilities (e.g. smartphones) contain two mobile operating systems – the main user-facing software platform is supplemented by a second low-level proprietary real-time operating system which operates the radio and other hardware. Research has shown that these low-level systems may contain a range of security vulnerabilities permitting malicious base stations to gain high levels of control over the mobile device.